Historian of Law and Swiss philosopher, Professor of Roman Law
in Basel (1841). He interpreted roman mythology from a romantic
and symbolic perspective, and wrote Matriarchate (1861) a historical
and ethnological study.
this work, the author states that the history of humanity evolved
from a non differentiated and polymorphus period, to an ancient
matriarchal era followed by a period of destabilization, after
which rises the patriarchal society. Jung, and later Erich Neumann,
were in search of matriarchal symbolism, and accepted at least,
the existence of matriarchate in the development of the conscience.
Carl Gustav: (Leipzig,
1789- 1869) He studied at the University of Leipzig with further
studies in Gynecology and obstetrics in the hospital of the Maternity
of Triersches, where he became director until 1827. He published
numerous articles and books in medical, philosophical and psychological
subjects. He was a talented artist of the romantic period, specially
in painting landscapes. He was friend of Nietzsche and Goethe.
Carus, Jung takes the presence in the unconscious of a creative,
independent and healing function, as well as the restoring capacity
of dreams in the psychic balance. Carus proposed as well a tripartite
model of the unconscious (absolute general, absolute relative
and partial) that inspired in Jung his concepts of the collective
and personal unconscious, and of conscience.
Johann Wolfgang: (Frankfurt,
to 1749-Weimar, 1832) German Writer. In 1765 he started Law Studies
in Leipzig, but a disease forced him to return to Frankfurt. Once
recovered from his illness he was transferred to Strasbourg to
continue his studies, and living there he became an active participant
of literary and artistic circles. In Frankfurt he began the writing
of his most ambitious work, Faustus, in which he worked until
shared with Goethe a polar vision of the world, and used to talk
about Faustus, work in which his author reflected on the polarity
of good and evil through the use of images and the symbols when
describing the internal fight of Faustus with evil, and his effort
to keep the tension of the opposites within oneself. Like Jung,
Goethe was interested in the possibility of the metamorphosis
of the self and for the relation between the masculine and the
French psychiatrist, who was born and died in Paris. He was disciple
of Charcot and in 1886 he published an very interesting essay
on hysteria. In his book Psychological Automatism (1889) expresses
his central theory on neurosis. The normal personality would be
the integration of pulsions, relatively balanced. When these are
abnormally weakened, a pathological deployment of personality
last thesis influenced Jung, as well as his perception of the
necessity of neurotic patients to let themselves go and to sink
in the unconscious. Another important influence was the importance
given by Janet to the relation doctor-patient. In the field of
therapy Jung received more influence from Janet than from Freud
(Athens, 427- 347 a.C): Greek philosopher, whose name was Aristocles.
Of noble family he pursued his education with Socrates. He founded
the Academy (387), and is the first Greek thinker whose work has
been conserved completely.
proposed the existence of some primigenius models of which human
beings constituted more or less defective shades. The models included
an original human being, complete and bisexual. The models would
serve as roots for the idea of jungian archetypes, whereas the
ideal of totality would influence his unitary vision of Nature.
(Königsberg, Kaliningrad today in Russia, 1724-1804): German
philosopher. In 1740 he entered the University of Königsberg
as a student of Theology where he became interested in the rationalist
philosophy of Leibniz and Wolff, as well as for natural science,
specially for the mechanics of Newton.
theories, along with those of Hegel influenced the theoretical
model of Jung, through the dialectic logic and the play of opposites
that generate energy psychic. Jung also follows Kant s argument
that every polarity contains the seed of its opposite. In addition,
Jung refers often to Kant s interest on parapsychology, granting
him the credit for the development of his theory of the archetypes.
today Germany, to 1844-Weimar, 1900): German philosopher, nationalized
Swiss. After studying Philology in the universities of Bonn and
Leipzig, he obtained at 24 a chair in the University of Basel.
His life became increasingly isolated as the symptoms of syphilis
increased, and the last years of his life were spent in mental
was influenced both by Bachofen and by Nietzsche who shared Bachofen’s
idea of the n the f primacy of the matriarchy one) to model its
own sense of history and to clarify its theory of the archetypes.
It was also inspired by the emphasis that gave to Nietzsche to
the importance of the dreams and the fantasy. Another aspect that
hit to Jung was the deep understanding that this one reached of
the dark shades and irrational forces that sublie to the individual
behavior and our civilization. But also its desire to fight against
(Leonberg, today Germany, 1775-Baz Ragaz, Switzerland, 1854):
German philosopher. One of the greater exponents of idealism and
romantic trends in German philosophy. He studied Philosophy and
Theology, where he met with Hegel and Hölderlin. In 1796
he made acquaintance with Goethe who obtained for him a chair
at the University of Jena. In 1803 he was transferred to the University
of Wurzburgo, where he taught until 1806.
The ideas of Jung on the collective unconscious, archetypes and
sizigia anima-animus were inspired by Schelling’s
philosophy of nature and his concept of the soul of the world
that unifies Spirit and Nature, his idea of the polarity in the
masculine and feminine attributes, and the essential bisexuality
of human beings. There is also Jungian theory takes from the reflections
of Schelling about the role of dynamic interplay of opposites
in the evolution of conscience, a belief shared with other romantic
today Gdansk, Poland, 1788-Frankfurt, Germany, 1860): German philosopher.
In 1805 he entered the University of Gotinga as student of medicine
student, where the readings of Plato and Kant oriented his interests
towards philosophy. He later returned to Weimar, and became related
to Goethe. The three pillars of his philosophical system were
ancient Hindu philosophy, Plato and Kant.
This author influenced Jung with the importance given by him to
irrational, oniric and unconscious elements. His neoplatonic vision
reinforces Jung’s theory of the archetypes, and his developments
on the four functions had a bearing on Jung’s theory of
Psychological Types. .
Viennese psychoanalyst, member of the Viena Association since
1910, known by his works on the symbolism of alchemy.
He becomes the first reference that Jung received of the psychological
symbolism of alchemy, since in 1914 Silverer applies psychoanalytic
theory to the study of this subject. However, the true interest
of Jung arises years later when writing in 1929 his comments for
the book the Secret of the Golden Flower, written with Richard
Wilhelm, in which he links Analytical Psychology to Eastern Hermetic